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美国环境论文代写

时间:2016-08-28 17:05来源:EssayPhD团队 作者:EssayPhD团队 点击:

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Essay PhD保证范文的原创性,请勿使用作其他用途。以下是这篇Environmental Essay的范文:

Environmental Equity for Developing Countries for Emission-Reduction Commitments

Climate change is associated closely with critical international and intergenerational implications for both sustainable development and environmental equity. As climate change has become a global issue, the role of environmental equity is even more critical since international environmental regulations often place addition burdens on developing countries. Though those impoverished developing countries have not yet produced the bulk of green house gases, and they still struggle for developing, developing countries are asked to scarify theirs rare development changes for environmental issues caused primarily by developed countries. By comparing the greenhouse gas emission situations for both developing country and developed country, and through the case study about China’s carbon dioxide emission target in relation with its economic development, this essay argues that environmental equity should be considered when dealing with emission reduction commitments which should not be implemented at the cost of developing countries’ opportunities for development.    

Anthropogenic greenhouse gases emission, which is brought by industrialization and urbanization, is considered as chief culprit for climate change at the global scale. Statistic data from IPCC report (2007) clearly reveals the fact that the critical point for a dramatic increase of greenhouse gases concentrations in atmosphere is in coincident with the beginning of Industrial Revolution. As illustrated in figure 1, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased dramatically and unprecedentedly since 1800 from around 270 ppm to 375 ppm. While in contrast, the change of carbon dioxide concentration in previous 10,000 years is scarce. Therefore, the industrialization processes of developed countries contributed greatly to the current climate change.

Figure 1. Change about Concentration of Carbon Dioxide over the Last 10,000 Years

(Refer to  IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. )

n addition to the tremendous amount of carbon dioxide emission during the history of industrialization, developed countries take the overwhelming positions for greenhouse gases emission in recent years as well. According to the data in 2004, the UNFCC Annex I countries,  which includes member countries of OECD, had taken about 20 percent of the world population and contributed to 46 percent of the global greenhouse gas emission (IPCC,  2007). Figure 2 demonstrates the 2004 data of greenhouse gas emission per capital for different counties. From this figure, it can show that majority of developed countries, such as the United States, Canada, countries of the European Unions, have taken top positions in terms of their per capital greenhouse gases emission. This means that compared with people in developing countries from Africa or South Asia, each individual in developed counties will produce more greenhouse gasses for daily life. This greenhouse gas emission and energy consumption patterns have been further proved by the World Bank Annual Report (World Bank, 2000) as well. As demonstrated in figure 3, the electricity consumed by high income counties was 8.2 times of that by low income counties. As the result of such an energy consumption pattern, high income countries generated 30.8 times of carbon dioxide compared with low income countries

Figure 2. Distribution of regional per capital Greenhouse Gas Emission for Different Countries in 2004.

(Refer to  IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. )

Figure 3. The Comparisons about Carbon Dioxide Emission per capital in 1998 and Electricity Consumption per capital in 1995 Among Different Country Categories.

(Data refer to Word Bank (2000). World Development Report 1999/2000. China Financial & Economical publishing.)

As the concept of sustainable development has been delivered to more people, they gradually realized that in the long-term, human welfare depends on the stable climate and sustainable use of resources (Ravindranath, 2002). Current disturbance of carbon cycle is brought by the by-product of fossil fuel burning and also the changes of land use (Ito and Penner, 2005). Yet for most of the developing countries, they still rely to a large extent on forest activities and use fossil fuels to promote both economic and social developments. It has been estimated that the carbon dioxide emission from developing countries will be even higher than that of industrialized countries by 2020 (Oberthur 1999).

As a response to the deteriorating condition for climate change, various international regulations and commitments have been released the quota management of greenhouse gas emission. However, this cap-and-trade regulation system brings different impacts on developed countries and developing countries. As argued by Oberthur (1999, p27),  for developing countries, greenhouse gases emission is a “survival emission” for development while for developed countries, it is a “luxury emission” for maintain high living standards. As complained by a Chinese negotiator for emission reduction obligations, “in the developed world only two people ride in a car, and yet you want us to give up riding on a bus” (Roberts 2001, p.506). Environmental equity and economic impacts brought by those emission reduction obligations should be reviewed in order to protect the interests of developing countries.  

In 2007, as one of fastest growing developing country, China, has surpassed the United States and became the largest emitter of carbon dioxide in the world (IEA, 2007). Therefore, the country faced tremendous international pressure to adopt various strict emission-reduction commitments. China has pledged that by 2020, it will reduce about 40 percent to 45 percent of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product from the level of 2005 (NRDC, 2009). However, those ambitious carbon dioxide emission targets has brought significant changes for the development in China. Fossil Fuel take up 90% of the total energy consumption in China during the past 50 years and the country depends to a great extent on heavy industry (Li, Chun and Yun, 2014). A research conducted by Wu and Tang (2015) demonstrates that carbon dioxide emission constraints have modified China’s industrial structure. The share of energy intensive industries will be reduced from 82% in 2007 to the estimated 30% by 2020 (Wu and Tang, 2015). As a country who is in the middle of industrialization and in the rigid demand for industrial products, this change in industrial structure impede its economic development. Figure 4 has demonstrated the presumptive GDP loss and welfare loss with different mandatory emission constraints models in the year of 2015 and 2010 respectively. The scenario with business-as-usual (BAU) emission constraints will lead to a GDP decrease of 2.11% in 2015 and a GDP decrease of 3.31 in 2020. The implementation of carbon dioxide reduction plans in China is at the cost of sacrificing its economic growth.

Figure 4. Economic and Welfare Looses of Cap-and-Trade Schemes in Different Emission Reduction Models

As a conclusion, for mitigating climate change, developing countries, such as China, have the responsibilities to contribute towards the abatement of greenhouse gases emission. However, this should not be at the cost of scarifying their opportunities for development. In history, developed countries have generated more greenhouse gas emission than developing countries. And for present, they still own higher greenhouse gas emission per capital for maintaining high living standards. While the greenhouse gas emission for developing countries is majorly for surviving and developing. There is a demand to construct dialogues between developed and developing countries in terms of the allocation of emission allowance for the future. Environmental policies should move away from the approach of strictly carbon sequestration and take more equity and social issues into consideration.

h4>Reference:

IEA, 2007. World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insights. International Energy Agency. Paris, France. Accessed from <March 1, 2016> http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/media/weowebsite/2008-1994/weo_2007.pdf).

IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Accessed from <March 1, 2016> https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf

Ito, A., & Penner, J. E. (2005). Historical emissions of carbonaceous aerosols from biomass and fossil fuel burning for the period 1870–2000.Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19(2).

Li-qun, L., Chun-xia, L., & Yun-guang, G. (2014). Green and sustainable City will become the development objective of China’s Low Carbon City in future.Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 12(1), 1.

NRDC, (2009).  From Copenhagen accord to climate action: Tracking national commitments to curb global warming. National Resources Defense Council. Accessed from < March 1, 2016> www.nrdc.org/international/copenhagenaccords/

Oberthür, S., & Ott, H. E. (1999). The Kyoto Protocol: international climate policy for the 21st century. Springer Science & Business Media.

Ravindranath, N. H., & Sathaye, J. A. (2002). Climate change and developing countrie. Springer Netherlands.

Roberts, J. T. (2001). Global inequality and climate change. Society&Natural Resources, 14(6), 501-509.

Word Bank (2000). World Development Report 1999/2000. China Financial & Economical publishing.

Wu, L., & Tang, W. (2015). Efficiency or Equity? Simulating the Carbon Emission Permits Trading Schemes in China Based on an Inter-Regional CGE Model (No. 1505). Centre for Climate Economics & Policy, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.

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